Marine Ecosystem

Coastal and Marine Ecosystem
Coastal and marine ecosystems are among the most productive, yet threatened, ecosystems in the world; they include open ocean marine areas, nearshore coastal areas, areas where freshwater and saltwater mix, and certain terrestrial ecosystems such as sand dunes. Over a third of the worlds population live in coastal areas and are dependent on the various ecosystem services that marine and coastal ecosystems such as coral reefs, mangroves and seagrass beds provide.

SPAW Protocol Documents

  • SPAW Protocol (text only)

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  • Final Act, Resolutions 1990

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  • Final Act, Resolution, Appendix and Species Annexes I, II, III 1991

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  • SPAW Factsheet

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  • SPAW Brochure

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  • SPAW Benefits Sheet

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  • Guildines for Marine Mammal Watching in the WCR
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  • Ratification Map

      Ratification Map